S/N ratio | Signal and Noise |

| Time-Averaging |

sample | Population and Sample |

| Samples |

sample space | Events and Sample Space |

| Venn Diagram |

sample&hold | Digitisation of Signals |

sampling | The Data |

| Representative Samples |

sampling distributions | Sampling Distributions |

sampling errors | Representative Samples |

sampling frequency | Digitisation of Signals |

sampling theorem | Sampling Theorem |

Sarrus' rule | Matrix Determinants - Calculation of Order 2 and 3 |

Savitzky-Golay coefficients | Savitzky-Golay Filter - Coefficients |

Savitzky-Golay filter | Savitzky-Golay Filter |

| Savitzky-Golay Filter - Mathematical Details |

scalar | Vectors - Introduction |

scalar product | Scalar Product |

scaling of data | Scaling of Data |

scaling of the data | z-Transform |

| T-Scores |

scatter matrix | Scatter, Covariance, and Correlation Matrix |

| PCA - Different Forms |

scatter plot | Autocorrelation and Scatter Plots |

| Scatter Plot |

scedasticity | Scedasticity |

scores | Factor Analysis |

| PCA - Loadings and Scores |

| Relations between Loadings, Scores and Original Data |

scree plot | PCA - Model Order |

search space | Phase Space |

selection of variables | Predictive Ability |

| Variable Selection - Stepwise Regression |

| Variable Selection - Introduction |

| Variable Selection - Principal Approach |

selectivity | Definitions of Quality Control |

| Selectivity and Specifity |

self organizing map | Kohonen Networks |

sensitivity | Sensitivity |

| Classifier Performance |

separabability of classes | Structure of Measured Data |

serial correlation | Autocorrelation |

| Uncorrelated Residuals - Durbin-Watson Test |

sets | Calculating with Sets |

Shapiro-Wilk test | Shapiro-Wilk Test |

Shapiro-Wilk test | Test for Normality |

signal-to-noise ratio | Coefficient of Variation |

| Signal and Noise |

| Time-Averaging |

signals | Signals as Time Series |

signed rank test | Wilcoxon Test for Paired Differences |

significance | Level of Significance |

| The Term "significant" |

similar mineral waters | Exercise - Similar Mineral Waters |

similarity | Distance and Similarity Measures |

simplex algorithm | Simplex Algorithm |

single linkage clustering | Minimal Spanning Tree |

singular matrix | Matrix Inversion |

singular value decomposition | Singular Value Decomposition |

skew-symmetric matrix | Transposed Matrix |

skewness | Skewness |

smoothing | Savitzky-Golay Filter - Coefficients |

SNR | Signal and Noise |

soft model | Modeling |

solid residues | Data Set - Solid Residues in Mineral Water |

SOM | Kohonen Networks |

Spearman's rank correlation | Spearman's Rank Correlation |

specificity | Classifier Performance |

specifity | Selectivity and Specifity |

specivity | Definitions of Quality Control |

spectrum | Time and Frequency |

spikes | Physical Origin of Noise |

splines | Curve Fitting by Splines |

spurious correlation | Spurious Correlation |

square matrix | Matrix Algebra - Fundamentals |

square window | Windowing Function and FFT |

stacked dot plot | Dot Plot |

standard deviation | Chebyshev's Theorem |

| Parameters |

| Standard Deviation |

standard normal probability density function | Normal Distribution |

standardization | Scaling of Data |

| z-Transform |

| T-Scores |

standardized skewness | Skewness |

state space notation | Filters - Mathematical Background |

stationary time series | Time Series - Trends |

statistic | Population and Sample |

statistical tests | Interpreting p values |

| Kolmogorov-Smirnov One-Sample Test |

| Test for Normality |

| Outlier Tests - Basic Rules |

| One-Sample t-Test - Large Samples |

| One-Sample t-Test - Small Samples |

| One Sample Chi-Square-Test |

| Two-Sample t-Test - Large Samples |

| Two-Sample t-Test - Small Sample Size |

| Two-Sample F-Test |

| Chi-Square Test |

| Paired Experiments |

| Distribution-Free Tests |

| Hypothesis Testing |

| Power of a Test |

| Test: Correlation Coefficient |

| Randomization Tests |

| Rank Randomization Tests |

| Wilcoxon Test for Paired Differences |

| Literatur - Statistical Tests |

| Uncorrelated Residuals - Durbin-Watson Test |

| Runs Test |

| Shapiro-Wilk Test |

| Parametric and Non-Parametric Tests |

statististical tests | Statististical Tests - Decision Tree |

stem-and-leaf plots | Stem-and-Leaf Plots |

stepwise regression | Variable Selection - Stepwise Regression |

stochastic matrix | Stochastic and Regular Matrix |

strontium concentration | Exercise - Comparing two sample means |

structure of measured data | Structure of Measured Data |

subsets | Complementary Sets and Subsets |

subtraction | Matrix Addition and Subtraction |

| Subtraction of Vectors |

summation rule | Summation of Probabilities |

sun block | Modeling - Example |

survey on ANN models | Models of ANNs |

SVD | Singular Value Decomposition |

symmetric matrix | Transposed Matrix |

systematic error | Random and Systematic Errors |